Soviet Occupation of Romania, Hungary, and Austria 1944/45–1948/49

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380 pages

This book compares the various aspects – political, military economic – of Soviet occupation in Austria, Hungary and Romania. Using documents found in Austrian, Hungarian, Romanian and Russian archives the authors argue that the nature of Soviet foreign policy has been misunderstood. Existing literature has focused on the Soviet foreign policy from a political perspective; when and why Stalin made the decision to introduce Bolshevik political systems in the Soviet sphere of influence. This book will show that the Soviet conquest of East-Central Europe had an imperial dimension as well and allowed the Soviet Union to use the territory it occupied as military and economic space. The final dimension of the book details the tragically human experiences of Soviet occupation: atrocities, rape, plundering and deportations.

By bringing key documents together in one single volume, this book offers penetrating new insights into Soviet policies in Romania, Hungary and Austria that contributed to the origins of the Cold War.


DOCUMENT No. 1: Memorandum on Atrocities Committed by Soviet Troops, September 12, 1944
DOCUMENT No. 2: Note on Soviet Abuses, September 13, 1944
DOCUMENT No. 3: Romanian-Soviet Memorandum regarding Romanian Participation in the War against Germany and Hungary, September 28, 1944
DOCUMENT No. 4: Report No. 30.001 from the Intelligence Service (SI) of the War Ministry Presented to the Minister of War, General Mihail Racovitză, on the Surveillance of the SI’s Activities and Personnel by Special Soviet Authorities, October 4, 1944
DOCUMENT No. 5: Romanian Note to the ACC regarding the Implementation of the Armistice Agreement, November 11, 1944
DOCUMENT No. 6: Report on the Interrogation of Intelligence Officers by SMERSH regarding Romanian Intelligence Activities on the Eastern Front, October 12, 1944
DOCUMENT No. 7: Letter by the Deputy Chairman of the Allied Control Commission in Romania, Lieutenant- General V.P. Vinogradov, to the President of the Council of Ministers, Army Corps Adjutant General Constantin Sănătescu,regarding the Armistice Agreement, November 2, 1944
DOCUMENT No. 8: Note by Marshal Rodion Malinovskii on the Administration of Northern Transylvania, November 20, 1944
DOCUMENT No. 9: Order of the Allied Control Commission in Romania on Relations between the Red Army and the Romanian Authorities, November 29, 1944
DOCUMENT No. 10: Note regarding Conduct of Police and Gendarmerie Personnel vis-à-vis Representatives of the Soviet Armed Forces, February 2, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 11: Note by Chief of Staff Army Corps Adjutant General Constantin Sănătescu to Lieutenant-General Vinogradov regarding Disarmament of Romanian Units, March 5, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 12: Report to L.I. Beriya on the Political Situation in Romania, March 5, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 13: Agreement of Economic Cooperation between the Kingdom of Romania and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, May 8, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 14: Memorandum of Agreement on Economic Cooperation between the Kingdom of Romania and the USSR, May 8, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 15: Romanian Position on the Establishment of a Joint Romanian-Soviet Timber Company, Undated [1945]
DOCUMENT No. 16: Note by General Vinogradov to Minister of Internal Affairs Teohari Georgescu regarding the Quartering of Soviet Troops, December 6, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 17: Meeting of the Council of Ministers regarding the Establishment of the Soviet-Romanian Forestry Company, February 14, 1946
DOCUMENT No. 18: Report of the Meeting between Stalin and the Romanian Communist Party Leaders on the Situation in Romania, April 2–3, 1946, Moscow, April 2–3, 1946
DOCUMENT No. 19: Transcript of Meeting of Romanian-Soviet Commission of Economic Cooperation, January 28, 1947
DOCUMENT No. 20: Aide-memoireDrafted by British Oil Companies Operating in Romania [Excerpt], April 15, 1947
DOCUMENT No. 21: Note regarding Soviet Claims on Formerly German-Owned Insurance Companies, April 1948
DOCUMENT No. 22: Soviet and Romanian Speeches Delivered on the Occasion of Signing
Agreements on Joint Soviet-Romanian Companies in Bucharest, November 1, 1948
DOCUMENT No. 23: Founding the Soviet-Romanian Film Company, Sovrom Film, August 9, 1947
DOCUMENT No. 24: Transcript of CC Romanian Workers’ Party Session regarding the Fate of Sovroms [Excerpts], March 7, 1953

DOCUMENT No. 25: Letter by the Archbishop of Szatmár to the Apostolic Nuncio on Soviet Deportations from Hungarian Territory, January 25, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 26: Letter by the Lord Lieutenant of Szabolcs and Ung Counties to the Minister of Interior on the Roundup of Civilians, January 25, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 27: Letter to the Foreign Ministry on Behalf of an Individual Deported by the Soviets, Undated [1945]
DOCUMENT No. 28: Letter to the Foreign Ministry regarding the Soviet Deportation of Civilians, Undated [1945]
DOCUMENT No. 29: Report to the Sixth Hungarian Army Headquarters on Soviet Deportations, May 24, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 30: Note regarding Soviet Removal of United Incandescent Bulb and Electrical Company, June 22, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 31: Memorandum by the Allied Control Commission regarding Provisions for the Red Army for the Fourth Quarter of 1945, Undated [1945]
DOCUMENT No. 32: The Hungarian Foreign Ministry’s Note Verbale to the ACC and Georgii Pushkin, the Soviet Representative in Hungary, July 9, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 33: Note by the Ministry of Defense Requesting Foreign Ministry Intervention on Behalf of Deported Persons, August 1, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 34: Agreement on the Establishment of Hungarian-Soviet Bauxite-Aluminum Companies, April 8, 1946
DOCUMENT No. 35: Report of Mátyás Rákosi at the Meeting of the HCP Central Committee, May 17, 1946
DOCUMENT No. 36: Note by the Supreme Economic Council on Provisioning and Quartering the Soviet Army, November 19, 1946
DOCUMENT No. 37: Memorandum on the Economic and Financial Situation of Hungary, May 17, 1947
DOCUMENT No. 38: Memorandum on Expenses Related to the Maintenance of the Soviet Army, March 8, 1948
DOCUMENT No. 39: Transcript of Soviet-Hungarian Negotiations regarding Payment of Services Rendered for the Soviet Occupation Forces, May 1949
DOCUMENT No. 40: Briefing by the Main Administration of Prisoners of War and Internees of the Interior Ministry of the Soviet Union on Hungarian Prisoners of War, December 20, 1949

DOCUMENT No. 41: NKVD Decree regarding Struggle against Saboteurs, Spies, and Bandits, [April 28, 1942]
DOCUMENT No. 42: Report by M.M. Litvinov to V.M. Molotov regarding the Soviet Position on Germany and Its Allies in Europe [Excerpts], October 9, 1943
DOCUMENT No. 43: Appeal by Austrian Prisoners of War in the USSR to the Austrian People,
January 1945
DOCUMENT No. 44: Speech by NKVD Brigadier I. Pavlov regarding Espionage Activity, March 1945
DOCUMENT No. 45: Stavka Directive on the Publication of an Appeal to the Austrian Public,
April 2, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 46: Stavka Directive on Karl Renner, April 4, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 47: Report by L. Beria to G. Malenkov on the Austrian Oil Industry, April 13, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 48: Telegram by Marshal F. Tolbukhin to I.V. Stalin regarding a Temporary Government for Austria, April 15, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 49: Telegram by Fyodor Tolbukhin to I.V. Stalin on Meeting with Karl Renner, April 21, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 50: Operational Plan for Securing Rear of the Third Ukrainian Front by NKVD Troops [Excerpts], May 3, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 51: NKVD Order regarding Alcohol Abuse by Red Army Personnel, May 13, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 52: Minutes of Meeting of Soviet Military Representatives and Communist Members of the Austrian Government, May 16, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 53: Order by the Fourth Guard Army regarding Summer Routine, May 21, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 54: NKVD Report on the Investigation and Arrest of Austrians, June 4, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 55: NKVD Directive regarding Ideological Training among the Third Ukrainian Front Staff, July 4, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 56: A. Vyshinskii’s Telegram to Marshal Konev regarding Elections in Austria, November 21, 1945
DOCUMENT No. 57: Draft Decree by the Council of Ministers on the Transfer of Austrian Assets to the Soviet Union, March 1946
DOCUMENT No. 58: Memorandum by Kiselev on the Political Situation in Austria, June 5, 1946
DOCUMENT No. 59: Report on the Moral Discipline of MVD Troops in Austria,
October 10, 1946
DOCUMENT No. 60: Letter from the Chief of GUPVI M. Krivenko, to the Minister of the Interior, S. Kruglov, on the Repatriation of 5,000 Austrians, January 20, 1947
DOCUMENT No. 61: From the Personal File of an Austrian POW, February 9, 1947
DOCUMENT No. 62: The GOSPLAN’s Report to V. Molotov on Dismantling in Austria, March 7, 1947
DOCUMENT No. 63: Order by the Deputy Minister of the Interior, I. Serov, on the Repatriation of Austrian POWs, November 8, 1947
DOCUMENT No. 64: Military Order by the Central Army Group Command on the Burial of Soviet Troops Killed in Action, November 13, 1947
DOCUMENT No. 65: Report by the Military Commander of Burgenland on Family Members of Military Personnel, January 20, 1948
DOCUMENT No. 66: Final Report by the Soviet Section of the AC on Austria for 1947—Summary, Undated [not before January 1948]
DOCUMENT No. 67: Record of Conversation between A.A. Zhdanov and the Leader of the Communist Party of Austria, Johann Koplenig, and Friedl Fürnberg, February 13, 1948
DOCUMENT No. 68: Report by Smirnov to A. Vyshinskii on the Soviet Position on the Austrian Treaty, Undated [after May 6, 1948]
DOCUMENT No. 69: Resolution by the Council of Ministers of the Politburo of the CC of the VKP(b), on the Repatriation of Austrian POWs, June 23, 1948
DOCUMENT No. 70: Report on Setting up a Christmas Tree at the Soviet Command Post in Rohrbach, January 4, 1949
DOCUMENT No. 71: Report by V. Merkulov to I.V. Stalin on the Employment of Experts after Foreign Assignment, June 11, 1949
DOCUMENT No. 72: Report by V. Merkulov to I.V. Stalin on the Value of Oil Deposits in Austria, September 23, 1949
DOCUMENT No. 73: Report by A. Gromyko to I. Stalin on the Status of Negotiations on the Austrian State Treaty, October 21, 1949
DOCUMENT No. 74: Resolution by the CC CPSU Politburo on the Interruption of Austrian State Treaty Talks, October 24, 1949
DOCUMENT No. 75: Report by the Soviet Political Representative in Austria, A. Koptelov, on the Effect of the Marshall Plan on Austria, June 10, 1950
DOCUMENT No. 76: Politburo Resolution No. 449, on the Repatriation of 431 Austrians, September 20, 1950
DOCUMENT No. 77: Information for Viennese Women whose Relatives Are Held as POWs in the Soviet Union, December 21, 1950

Index of Geographical Names
Index of Personal Names

"Außer der Frage des politischen Systems beleuchten die abgedruckten Dokumente und die einleitenden Ausführungen auch die Art und den Umfang der sowjetischen Inanspruchnahme wirtschaftlicher Ressourcen einschließlich zwangsweise geleisteter Arbeit, die Behandlung der jeweiligen Kriegsgefangenen und repressive Maßnahmen der sowjetischen Militärbehörden. Dabei ergeben sich stellenweise neue Einblicke. Den insgesamt 75 Dokumenten – 24 über Rumänien, 16 über Ungarn und die restlichen 35 über Österreich – geht eine umfangreiche Einleitung der vier Herausgeber voraus, die zuerst generell die sowjetische Südosteuropa-Politik im Ost-West-Kontext und dann das Vorgehen gegenüber jeweils den einzelnen Ländern behandelt. Diese Ausführungen sind knapp, aber ungewöhnlich klar und präzise – die weitaus beste Zusammenfassung, die es zu diesem Thema gibt. Auch deswegen ist der Dokumentenband zeithistorischen Fachleuten wie Laien unbedingt zur Lektüre zu empfehlen."