Philanthropy, Conflict Management, and International Law

The 1914 Carnegie Report on the Balkan Wars of 1912/1913
$85.00 / €71.00 / £61.00
Publication date: 
November 2021, 340 pages

This book centers on the Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars, published in Washington in the early summer of 1914 by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The volume was born from the conviction that the full assessment of the significance of the Carnegie Report—one of the first international non-governmental fact-finding missions with the intention to promote peace—requires a deeper exploration of the context of its birth.

The authors examine how the countries involved in the wars handled the inquires of the Carnegie Commission and the role of the report in the remembrance of the wars in the respective states. Although the report considered both the Ottoman Empire and the Balkan nation-states insufficiently civilized to wage wars within the limits of the codes of conduct of international law, this orientalist conclusion can in part be explained by the liberal internationalist strategy of the Carnegie Endowment, and of the commission members’ professional, political, and ethnic background. Overshadowed by the outbreak of World War I, the Carnegie Report’s direct impact on international arbitration or international criminal law was limited, yet—in the authors’ opinion—it ultimately contributed to the further juridification of international relations

Dietmar Müller
The Balkan Wars and the Carnegie Report: Historiography and significance for international law. An Introduction

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: Philanthropy and Internationalism in 20th Century

Helke Rausch
International Law and Conciliation under Pressure: Political Profiles of the Carnegie Men behind the Balkan Report c.1910–1919

Isabella Löhr
“The International Law of the Future”: The Carnegie Endowment and the Sovereign Limits of International Jurisdiction, 1910s–1960s

Katja Naumann
Shaping International Minds: Education for Peace and International Cooperation after the Great War in the United States

Biographical Approaches: The Commission

Nadine Akhund
The Balkan Carnegie Commission of 1913: Origins and Features

Stefan Troebst
Macedonia as a Lifelong Topic: Henry Noël Brailsford

Thomas Bohn
History and Politics: Macedonia in the Assessment of Pavel N. Miliukov

The Carnegie Commission on the spot and its legacies

Ivan Ilčev
The 1913 Carnegie Commission of Inquiry: Background, Fact-Finding and International Reactions

Adamantios Skordos
Doomed to Fail: The Carnegie Commission in Greece

Stefan Djordjević
The Carnegie Commission Reports and Serbia: Balkan Wars and their Legacies

Maria Todorova
The Balkan Wars in Memory: The Carnegie Report and Trotsky’s War Correspondence