Mobilizing Roma Ethnicity
The Roma issue is generally treated as a European matter. Indeed, the Roma are the largest European minority—their presence outside of Europe is a result of various waves of migration over the past four hundred years. Likewise, the stereotypes associated with the Roma—the problematized, stigmatized status of a “Gypsy” as well as the historical and contemporary manifestations of antigypsyism—are also of European origin. This book claims, however, that the perception of Roma being strictly a European issue is flawed, and that re-connecting the Roma issue globally represents an important learning experience and an added value.
The book offers a critical exploration of Romani political activism in Colombia and Argentina, and compares it to that in Spain, narrated from the intimate perspective of Romani actors themselves. By outlining parallel lineages of Romani activism in three countries and on two continents, the author arrives at broad conclusions regarding the nature of ethnic mobilization. Mirga-Kruszelnicka proposes a new synergetic conceptualization of this multidirectional concept as an interplay between political opportunities, mobilizing structures, and frames of identity.
Contributing to the vivid debate about the relationship between the researcher and the researched, the book also includes an original discussion of the positionality of scholars of Romani background.
CHAPTER 1. DEFINING ETHNIC MOBILIZATION – A SYNERGIC APPROACH
Ethnic mobilization – a conceptual puzzle
Defining ethnic mobilization
Understanding Romani ethnic mobilization
Framing Romani activism – literature overview
Delineating Romani ethnic mobilization – actors and processes
Defining Romani mobilizing structures
Pro-Roma actors and Romani ethnic mobilization
CHAPTER 2. POLITICAL OPPORTUNITIES – UNDERSTANDING THE BROADER CONTEXT
Setting the scene: Ethnic mobilization in Europe and Latin America
Roma as political subjects
Roma in Europe and Latin America: Comparable cases?
CHAPTER 3. ROMANI ETHNIC MOBILIZATION IN A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE. LOOKING INTO THE CASE-STUDY COUNTRIES
Argentina, Colombia and Spain: majority contexts, minority struggles
Reconstructing the genealogy of Romani presence
In search of windows of political opportunity
Anno Domini 2017 – Status of Roma
CHAPTER 4. WHO IS DOING THE MOBILIZING? ANATOMY OF ROMANI ETHNIC MOBILIZATION THROUGH THE PRISM OF THE ACTORS
Anatomy of a movement – birth and growth of Romani actors Argentina
Panorama of Romani mobilizing structures: an overview
Leadership and composition patterns
Multiple voices: Between fragmentation and consolidation
Rationale for ethnic mobilization
CHAPTER 5. MOBILIZING FRAMES? IDENTITY AND INTERESTS INTERTWINED
Identity and interests – and potential of collective agency
Romani identity frames
Romani frames of collective interest
Mobilizing frames? Frame alignment and frame correspondence vis-à-vis Romani constituency
CHAPTER 6. MOBILIZING ROMANI ETHNICITY FOR COLLECTIVE ACTION
Targets of mobilization – why is this important? 174
Targeting structures of power – external upward mobilization 175
Building support and seeking allies – external sideways mobilization
Internal mobilization – community as a resource?
CONCLUSIONS: MOBILIZING FOR CHANGE? LIMITS AND POTENTIAL OF ROMANI ETHNIC MOBILIZATION
Roma issue as a global issue – importance of the trans-continental perspective
Contributions to Romani Studies
Romani agency in the world politics – possibilities and opportunities