Kalmykia in Russia's Past and Present National Policies and Administrative System

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454 pages + 8 pages with illustrations

Kalmykia is a constituent of the Russian Federation that shaped and has been developing within Russia for several centuries. Kalmykia was incorporated into the Russian state in the early second half of the 17 th century, it was officially recognized by the Russian authorities and constituted as an ethno-political entity in the form of feudal khanate with the status of a virtually autonomous unit. The Kalmyk Khanate’s status as a largely self-ruling area within the Russian Empire gradually transformed into the status of a regular administrative territory under the Astrakhan governor. It received the status of a Republic from Stalin.

Maksimov examines issues of interrelations between the Kalmyk people and Russia before and after the Kalmyks’ accession to the Russian state. Analyzes the Soviet national policy and to the destiny of Kalmykia under the communist regime. The legal status of this republic and its development under the new Russian federalism are discussed in great details.


Chapter 1:Russia’s Policy Towards Kalmyks (late 16th–mid-17th centuries)
1. Russia’s policy at the initial stage of the Kalmyks’ accession to Russia (late 16th–mid-17th centuries)
2. Russia’s policy towards Kalmyks in 1620–1650

Chapter 2: Kalmyk Khanate as a Part of Russia (mid-17th–second half of 18th centuries)
1. Political autonomy of the Kalmyk Khanate (mid-17th–1st quarter of 18th centuries)
2. Kalmyk Khanate’s Administrative Autonomy (1st–3rd quarters of 18th centuries)

Chapter 3: Kalmykia’s Status in the Russian Empire (late 18th–early 20th centuries)
1. Gradual incorporation of Kalmykia into Russia’s system of administrative and territorial control (last quarter of 18th–first half of 19th centuries)
2. Completion of Kalmykia’s incorporation into the system of administrative and territorial control of the Russian Empire (first half of 19th–early 20th centuries)

Chapter 4: Kalmyk Soviet Autonomous Oblast in the Years of Socialism Building (1917–1935)

Chapter 5: Kalmyk Soviet Autonomous Republic under Totalitarianism and during Stagnation Period

Chapter 6: Kalmykia within the New Russian Federal System


Name Index

"Kalmykia in Russia's Past and Present's invaluable overview of Kalmyk-Russian relations is laced with crucial background information on Kalmyk history, culture, and society. It makes thorough use of prerevolutionary, Soviet, and post-Soviet secondary and published primary sources and unpublished materials from the National Archives of the Kalmyk Republic. An admirable contribution to our knowledge of one of Russia's less-studied peoples. Scholars of Soviet and Russian nationality issues, Mongolian studies, and late Soviet / post-Soviet politics will all benefit from this original work."