Engineering European Unity

The Quest for the Right Solution Across Centuries
$85.00 / €71.00 / £61.00
Publication date: 
December, 254 pages

Which European and non-European ideas and practices facilitated the shaping of European unity? Or rather, which pursuits led to deadlocks in the cooperation between states?

The book seeks answers to these questions by surveying the historical attempts at realizing supranational patterns of governance in Europe since the Middle Ages. The main focus is on the nineteenth and twentieth century organizational models of European unification.

The analysis draws on an abundance of historical and legal source material. While the author encourages critical thinking about European integration, the exploration is admittedly based on specific values. Éva Bóka claims that the struggle for the humanization of power with its democratic creative force has been the major driver in the development of the system of liberties and the idea of European unity. The analysis of the historical process up to the Lisbon Treaty (2007) with the recognition of common, shared, and supported competences meets the author’s set of values to a great extent. The last part of the book examines whether the European Union can serve as a political and economic organizational model for other parts of the world.

Introduction: The Idea of European Unity, the Western System of Liberties, and the Dichotomy of Federalism versus Intergovernmentalism 

1. The Most Important Achievements of the Idea of European Unity in the Field of State and International Organization before the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789)
1.1 Defense Unions and the Theoretical Differentiation between the Alliances of States 
1.2 European Universalism 
1.3 The Idea of Liberty and the Principles of a Civil State and Union of States 

2. A New Democratic Constitutional Federal State in Opposition to Feudalism and Colonization: The Constitution of the United States of America (1787) and Its Influence in Europe 
2.1 The Constitution of a Democratic Federal Republic under a President (1787) 
2.2 The “Hamilton Method” 
2.3 The Dichotomy of a Fictive versus Real Economy 
2.4 The Main Phases of Democratization of the Idea of European Unity 

3. The Dilemma of Democratization of the Idea of European Unity (1789–1815) 
3.1 The French Revolution and the Attempt to Establish Democracy and Popular Sovereignty in a Unitary Nation State 
3.2 Kant in Search of a Democratic International Policy (Foedus Pacificum)
3.3 The Conservative Breakthrough 

4 The European Phenomenon of Nation State and National Empire, and the Chances of a European Federation (1815–1919) 
4.1 Romantic Nationalism 
4.2 The German and Italian Unification 
4.3 The Swiss Confederation (1848) 
4.4 Plans for the Reconstruction of the Habsburg Monarchy 
4.5 The Federalist Opposition to the Liberal Democratic Unitary Nation-State 
4.6 Colonialism of European Great Powers and the Forgotten Idea of European Unity 
4.7 The Forgotten Europe: The Treaty of Versailles, and the League of Nations 

5 The Crisis of Realization of the Western System of Liberties and the Idea of European Unity between the Two World Wars 
5.1 In the Shadow of Dictatorships 
5.2 The Idea of Pan-Europa 
5.3 Plans for a European Economic Union 
5.3.1 The Dichotomy of Liberal versus Statist Economic Theory 
5.3.2 Planning European Economic Unity 
5.4 The Great Depression and the New Deal of Roosevelt 
5.5 The Great Depression and Hitler’s Europe 

6. Fight for a Democratic Europe 
6.1 Coudenhove-Kalergi and the Pan-European Movement 
6.2 L’Ordre Nouveau and Personalist or Integral Federalism 
6.3 The Resistance Movement—Launching the Policy of a European Democratic Federation Based on the Idea of Liberty 

7. In Search of a New Europe: Three Alternatives 
7.1 Atlantic Cooperation 
7.2 Confronting the Legacy of Colonization—“Eurafrica” in a Decolonization Perspective 
7.3 To Become a Great Power from Europe’s Own Democratic Forces: The Federalist Reform 

8. Realizing the Idea of European Unity in the Framework of the Council of Europe 
8.1 The Hague Congress (1948): Intergovernmentalist, Federalist, and Functionalist Bases of a European Union 
8.2 Intergovernmentalist Majority and the Council of Europe 

9. Shaping the Supranational European Union 
9.1 Functionalist Sectoral Integration: The “Monnet-Method” 
9.1.1 Criticism of the “Monnet-Method” by Contemporaries 
9.2 Supranationalism toward Federalism (1952–1954) 
9.3 The Rome Treaties and the European Economic Community (1957) 
9.4 De Gaulle’s Intergovernmentalist “European Concert” 
9.5 Spinelli: Relaunching Integration, Reviving Federalism 
9.6 The Delors’s Reform: Federation of Nation States and of People 
9.7 European Union (1992): A New Type of Federalist Functionalist and Intergovernmentalist Functionalist Union of States Based on Subsidiarity and Multilevelism 

10 Outlook: Future Paths and Perspectives 

11 The World and Europe (EU): Some Responses to the Challenge of European Modernity 
11.1 Responses from India (Gandhi and Nehru) 
11.2 Some African Answers (Nkrumah, Senghor, Nyerere) 
11.3 Responses and Challenges from Confucian East Asia (Japan, China) 
11.3.1 The Japanese Answer (Yukichi Fukuzawa) 
11.3.2 The Chinese Responses and Challenge (K’ang Yu-wei, Sun Yat-sen, Mao Zedong,
Deng Xiaoping) 
11.4 The Vision of Peaceful International Organization 

12 Concluding Thoughts 

About the Author 

“This is an intellectual history of plans for creating institutions to implement the idea of a European unity. Bóka does not focus on the history of the idea of Europe or the idea of European unity but rather lists and compares the plans for institutions that were developed since the Middle Ages to realize supranational forms of governance in Europe. This survey is rich and goes into many lesser known details. The analytical point in evaluating the plans is to what extent they could, or – if they were never implemented, according to the assessment of the author – could have guaranteed a Europe-wide functioning of the Western system of liberties. This book teaches us a highly topical lesson about the limits and possibilities of constructing institutions of European integration.”