Civil Movements in an Illiberal Regime
Dániel Mikecz addresses in this study the tensions between oppositional civil society and party-political actors. As successive elections demonstrate the increasing confidence of the illiberal regime of Viktor Orbán, left and liberal parties of the opposition have faced a prolonged crisis in credibility. At the same time, the civil society has not been immobile, and bottom-up initiatives, social and political movements, and non-governmental organizations have gained momentum in the public sphere. The ruling power is also active in the extra-parliamentary political arena. Through national consultations, Peace Marches, and other means, Orbán’s governing Fidesz party has mobilized voters outside of election campaigns and has implemented a so-called movement governance. The study offers a vivid examination of this top-down or astroturf mobilization of the regime.
Mikecz identifies the different patterns of activism and creates a coherent typology. He describes in detail each kind of activism based on opinion surveys, protest surveys and content analysis. The categorization and comprehensive exploration of civil movements provide a deep understanding of the mechanisms of illiberal postcommunist regimes.
List of Tables
2 The Context of Activism: Civil Society and Political Participation in Hungary
From Civil Society to Civil Movements
The Political Opportunity Structure of the Hungarian Illiberal Regime
3 Protest and Politics after the Illiberal Turn
New Waves of Protest and Political Participation after 2010
Structural Contrasts between Civil and Political Action
4 Patterns of Activism in Hungary
Civil Ethos Activism
Experience-oriented, Altruistic Activism
Exclusive Political Activism
Populist Political Activism