"Kõll questions the degree to which the campaign in Estonia was class-driven and implemented by outsiders. Through careful comparison of local evidence from three local soviets in Viljandi, she finds substantial variation in dekulakization, including the criteria used in kulak selection and the numbers of those so identified. Within this context she uncovers both collaboration and a surprising degree of resistance by local leaders and the village population. One of the most interesting discoveries is the numerous letters supporting appeals for reconsideration of those labeled as kulaks, including letters by the very local soviet officials who selected them. The book underscores the impact of German occupation on dekulakization in Estonia. Kõll consistently finds that using Red Army POWs during the German occupation and other behavior which might be interpreted as pro-German led to kulak status. The consequences of living between Germany and the Soviet Union during World War II scarred Estonian society not only during the war, but continued to shape the destinies of Estonians until the collapse of the USSR."