Masterpieces of History

The Peaceful End of the Cold War in Europe, 1989
ISBN: 
978-963-9776-77-7
cloth
$75.00 / €55.00 / £50.00
ISBN: 
978-615-5053-40-5
paperback
$40.00 / €35.00 / £30.00
Winner of the Arthur S. Link-Warren F. Kuehl Prize for Documentary Editing of the The Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations -- With a foreword by Anatoly S. Chernyaev and Jack F. Matlock, Jr.
Publication date: 
2010
774 pages

Twenty years in the making, this collection presents 122 top-level Soviet, European and American records on the superpowers’ role in the annus mirabilis of 1989. Consisting of Politburo minutes; diary entries from Gorbachev’s senior aide, Anatoly Chernyaev; meeting notes and private communications of Gorbachev with George H.W. Bush, Margaret Thatcher, Helmut Kohl and François Mitterrand; and high-level CIA analyses, this volume offers a rare insider’s look at the historic, world-transforming events that culminated in the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the end of the Cold War. Most of these records have never been published before.

Complementing the documents is the inclusion for the first time of the proceedings of an extraordinary face-to-face mutual interrogation (with scholars and documents ) in 1998 of Russian and American senior former officials—Gorbachev advisers Anatoly Chernyaev and Georgy Shakhnazarov, Shevardnadze aide Sergei Tarasenko, U.S. Ambassador Jack Matlock and CIA chief Soviet analyst Douglas MacEachin—aimed at assessing and explaining Moscow and Washington’s policies during the miraculous year of 1989.

Preface and Acknowledgements
Foreword by Anatoly S. Chernyaev
Foreword by Jack F. Matlock, Jr.
Acronyms
Chronology of Events

“The Logic of 1989: The Soviet Peaceful Withdrawal from Eastern Europe”
by Svetlana Savranskaya

“U.S. Policy and the Revolutions of 1989”
by Thomas Blanton

Dialogue: The Musgrove Conference, May 1-3, 1998

Document No. 1:
Transcript of Mikhail Gorbachev’s Conference with CC CPSU Secretaries, March 15, 1985
Document No. 2:
Diary of Anatoly Chernyaev regarding the “Vladimirov” Article, July 5, 1985
Document No. 3:
Memorandum from Anatoly Chernyaev to Aleksandr Yakovlev on Germany and Eastern Europe, March 10, 1986
Document No. 4:
Speech by Mikhail Gorbachev to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, May 28, 1986
Document No. 5:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, June 13, 1986
Document No. 6:
Memorandum from Mikhail Gorbachev to the CC CPSU Politburo on Topical Questions regarding Collaboration with Socialist Countries, June 26, 1986
Document No. 7:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, July 3, 1986
Document No. 8:
Transcript of CC CPSU Politburo Session, November 13, 1986
Document No. 9:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, January 29, 1987
Document No. 10:
Proposal from Georgy Shakhnazarov to the CPSU for a Partial Soviet Troop Withdrawal from the ČSSR, March 1987
Document No. 11:
Report on Mikhail Gorbachev’s Visit to Czechoslovakia, April 16, 1987
Document No. 12:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, May 8, 1987
Document No. 13:
Report on Mikhail Gorbachev’s Visit to Romania, June 4, 1987
Document No. 14:
Report on Eduard Shevardnadze’s Visits to Bulgaria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia, July 9, 1987
Document No. 15:
State Department Intelligence and Research Report: “Economic Reform in the USSR and Eastern Europe,” September 16, 1987
Document No. 16:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, November 19, 1987
Document No. 17:
Memorandum from Robert Gates, “Gorbachev’s Gameplan: The Long View,” November 24, 1987
Document No. 18:
Telegram from Rozanne Ridgeway to All European Diplomatic Posts, “Eastern Europe: Invitation to the Dance,” December 1987
Document No. 19:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, March 10, 1988
Document No. 20:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Lazar Moisov, March 14, 1988
Document No. 21:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, March 24-25, 1988
Document No. 22:
Record of the Main Content of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Gustáv Husák, April 12, 1988
Document No. 23:
Record of the Main Content of a Telephone Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and János Kádár, May 19, 1988
Document No. 24:
Comments from Georgy Shakhnazarov on Viktor Kulikov’s Report at the Warsaw Treaty PCC, May 25, 1988
Document No. 25:
National Intelligence Estimate 11/12-9-88: “Soviet Policy toward Eastern Europe under Gorbachev,” May 1988
Document No. 26:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, June 20, 1988
Document No. 27:
Speech by Mikhail Gorbachev at a Dinner with Wojciech Jaruzelski, July 11, 1988
Document No. 28:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Józef Czyrek, September 23, 1988
Document No. 29:
Preparatory Notes from Georgy Shakhnazarov for Mikhail Gorbachev for CC CPSU Politburo Meeting, October 6, 1988
Document No. 30:
Diary of Anatoly Chernyaev regarding a Meeting between Mikhail Gorbachev and Helmut Kohl, October 28, 1988
Document No. 31:
Notes of a Meeting between Mikhail Gorbachev and Foreign Policy Advisers, October 31, 1988
Document No. 32:
Summary of Conversations between Károly Grósz, János Berecz, Miklós Németh, Mátyás Szűrös and Aleksandr Yakovlev, November 10-11, 1988
Document No. 33:
CIA Intelligence Assessment, “Gorbachev’s September Housecleaning: An Early Evaluation,” December 1988
Document No. 34:
Diary of Anatoly Chernyaev on the Situation in the Baltics, December 10, 1988
Document No. 35:
Transcript of CC CPSU Politburo Session, December 27-28, 1988
Document No. 36:
Record of Conversation between Aleksandr Yakovlev and Henry Kissinger, January 16, 1989
Document No. 37:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Henry Kissinger, January 17, 1989
Document No. 38:
Letter from George H.W. Bush to Mikhail Gorbachev, January 17, 1989
Document No. 39:
Report from Mikhail Gorbachev to the CC CPSU Politburo regarding His Meeting with the Trilateral Commission, January 21, 1989
Document No. 40:
Notes of Telephone Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and George H.W. Bush, January 23, 1989
Document No. 41:
Memorandum from the CC CPSU International Department, “On a Strategy for Relations with the European Socialist Countries,” February 1989
Document No. 42:
Memorandum from the Bogomolov Institute, “Changes in Eastern Europe and their Impact on the USSR,” February 1989
Document No. 43:
Cable from Jack Matlock to State Department, “The Soviet Union over the Next Four Years,” February 3, 1989
Document No. 44:
Memorandum from Anatoly Chernyaev to Vadim Zagladin, February 4, 1989
Document No. 45:
Cable from Jack Matlock to State Department, “The Soviet Union over the Next Four Years,” February 13, 1989
Document No. 46:
Report on Vadim Medvedev’s Visit to Romania, February 16, 1989
Document No. 47:
Cable from Jack Matlock to State Department, “U.S.-Soviet Relations: Policy Opportunities,” February 22, 1989
Document No. 48:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Achille Occhetto, February 28, 1989
Document No. 49:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, March 3, 1989
Document No. 50:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Miklós Németh, March 3, 1989
Document No. 51:
Notes of Mikhail Gorbachev’s Meeting with Soviet Ambassadors to Socialist Countries, March 3, 1989
Document No. 52:
Record of Conversations between Mikhail Gorbachev and Károly Grósz, March 23-24, 1989
Document No. 53:
Transcript of CC CPSU Politburo Session, “Outcome of the USSR People’s Deputies Elections,” March 28, 1989
Document No. 54:
CIA Intelligence Assessment, “Rising Political Instability under Gorbachev: Understanding the Problem and Prospects for Resolution,” April 1989
Document No. 55:
Report from Vadim Zagladin on Conversation with Jan Pudlák, April 1, 1989
Document No. 56:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Margaret Thatcher, April 6, 1989
Document No. 57:
National Intelligence Estimate 11-4-89, Soviet Policy Toward the West: The Gorbachev Challenge, April 1989
Document No. 58:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, April 20, 1989
Document No. 59:
Diary of Anatoly Chernyaev regarding Gorbachev’s State of Mind, May 2, 1989
Document No. 60:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, May 11, 1989
Document No. 61:
Transcript of CC PUWP Secretariat Meeting, June 5, 1989
Document No. 62:
Record of Conversation between Erich Honecker and Eduard Shevardnadze, June 9, 1989
Document No. 63:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Helmut Kohl, June 12, 1989
Document No. 64:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Richard von Weizsäcker, June 12, 1989
Document No. 65:
Transcript of Opening Full Session of Hungarian National Round Table Negotiations, June 13, 1989
Document No. 66:
Record of Second Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Helmut Kohl, June 13, 1989
Document No. 67:
Record of Third Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Helmut Kohl, June 14, 1989
Document No. 68:
Memorandum of Telephone Conversation between George H.W. Bush and Helmut Kohl, June 15, 1989
Document No. 69:
Memorandum of Telephone Conversation between George H.W. Bush and Helmut Kohl, June 23, 1989
Document No. 70:
Letter from Helmut Kohl to George H.W. Bush, June 28, 1989
Document No. 71:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev, Francois Mitterrand and Their Spouses, July 4, 1989
Document No. 72:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Francois Mitterrand, July 5, 1989
Document No. 73:
Address by Mikhail Gorbachev to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, July 6, 1989
Document No. 74:
Record of Concluding Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Francois Mitterrand, July 6, 1989
Document No. 75:
Notes of Meeting of Warsaw Treaty Member-States, July 8, 1989
Document No. 76:
Information Note regarding George H.W. Bush’s Visit to Poland (July 9-11), July 18, 1989
Document No. 77:
Record of Conversation between Aleksandr Yakovlev and Jack Matlock, July 20, 1989
Document No. 78:
Report from Rezső Nyers and Károly Grósz on Negotiations with Mikhail Gorbachev, July 24-25, 1989
Document No. 79:
Transcript of SED Politburo Sessions, September 5, 1989
Document No. 80:
Memorandum of Conversation between Oskar Fischer and Vyacheslav Kochemassov, September 7, 1989
Document No. 81:
Letter from Gerd Vehres to Oskar Fischer, September 10, 1989
Document No. 82:
Record of Conversation between Evgeny Primakov and Margaret Thatcher, September 18, 1989
Document No. 83:
CIA Intelligence Assessment, “Gorbachev’s Domestic Gambles and Instability in the USSR,” September 1989
Document No. 84:
National Security Directive (NSD) 23, “United States Relations with the Soviet Union,” September 22, 1989
Document No. 85:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Margaret Thatcher, September 23, 1989
Document No. 86:
Protocol No. 166 of CC CPSU Politburo Session, September 28, 1989
Document No. 87:
Diary of Anatoly Chernyaev regarding Mikhail Gorbachev’s Visit to the GDR, October 5, 1989
Document No. 88:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Members of the CC SED Politburo, October 7, 1989
Document No. 89:
Diary of Anatoly Chernyaev regarding German Reunification, October 9, 1989
Document No. 90:
Diary of Anatoly Chernyaev regarding Erich Honecker, October 11, 1989
Document No. 91:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, Discussion of Mikhail Gorbachev’s Talk with Mieczysław Rakowski, October 12, 1989
Document No. 92:
Record of Conversation between Vadim Medvedev and Kurt Hager, October 13, 1989
Document No. 93:
Memorandum from Georgy Shakhnazarov to Mikhail Gorbachev regarding Military Détente in Europe, October 14, 1989
Document No. 94:
Record of Telephone Conversation between George H.W. Bush and Helmut Kohl, October 23, 1989
Document No. 95:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Mauno Koivisto, October 25, 1989
Document No. 96:
Record of Conversation between Aleksandr Yakovlev and Zbigniew Brzezinski, October 31, 1989
Document No. 97:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Egon Krenz, November 1, 1989
Document No. 98:
Cable from U.S. Embassy in Sofia to the State Department, “The Nov 10 CC Party Plenum: Little Prospect for Major Changes,” November 9, 1989
Document No. 99:
Notes of CC CPSU Politburo Session, November 9, 1989
Document No. 100:
Record of Conversation between Helmut Kohl and Lech Wałęsa, November 9, 1989
Document No. 101:
Diary of Anatoly Chernyaev regarding the Collapse of the Berlin Wall, November 10, 1989
Document No. 102:
Record of Telephone Conversation between George H.W. Bush and Helmut Kohl, November 10, 1989
Document No. 103:
Record of Telephone Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Helmut Kohl, November 11, 1989
Document No. 104:
Record of Telephone Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Francois Mitterrand, November 14, 1989
Document No. 105:
Record of Telephone Conversation between George H.W. Bush and Helmut Kohl, November 17, 1989
Document No. 106:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Brian Mulroney, November 21, 1989
Document No. 107:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Tadeusz Mazowiecki, November 24, 1989
Document No. 108:
Speech by Ladislav Adamec at CC CPCz Extraordinary Session, November 24, 1989
Document No. 109:
Letter from Helmut Kohl to George H.W. Bush, November 28, 1989
Document No. 110:
Soviet Transcript of the Malta Summit, December 2-3, 1989
Document No. 111:
Memorandum of Conversation of George H.W. Bush, John Sununu, Brent Scowcroft, and Helmut Kohl, December 3, 1989
Document No. 112:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Petar Mladenov, December 5, 1989
Document No. 113:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Hans Dietrich Genscher, December 5, 1989
Document No. 114:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Francois Mitterrand, December 6, 1989
Document No. 115:
Cable from James Baker to U.S. Embassy Sofia, December 19, 1989
Document No. 116:
Four Soviet Foreign Ministry Documents regarding the Situation in Romania, December 20-25, 1989
Document No. 117:
Memorandum from the CC CPSU International Department, “Towards a New Concept of Relations between the USSR and the States of Central and Eastern Europe,” January 5, 1990
Document No. 118:
Diary of Anatoly Chernyaev regarding German Reunification, January 28, 1990
Document No. 119:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and James Baker, February 9, 1990
Document No. 120:
Letter from James Baker to Helmut Kohl, February 10, 1990
Document No. 121:
National Intelligence Estimate 12-90: The Future of Eastern Europe (Key Judgments Only), April 1990
Document No. 122:
Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Wojciech Jaruzelski, April 13, 1990

Main Actors
Selected Bibliography
Index

"The National Security Archive … deserves the highest praise for its dedication to work and truth, and for overcoming numerous obstacles created by bureaucrats and other excessively cowardly and greedy custodians of the truth about the past.” (From the Foreword)
"The end of the Cold War, among the most important events in recent history, continues to shape international relations. The authors of Masterpieces of History: The Peaceful End of the Cold War in Europe, 1989 attempt to provide a profound and objective framework for discussion and research on this highly significant period. Aan essential reading for everyone who is interested in the late Cold War period. It contains an enormous amount of first-hand information, scrupulously collected for 15 years, in one compact volume, conveniently placed, translated and numbered. Besides the valuable archival sources, it provides some useful theoretical and analytical insight, marking possible directions for the further research on the period"
"The conference held at … Musgrove [included in this volume] … illuminated one of the most important periods in 20th century history … The National Security Archive [has] rendered a service to historians and the public as a whole.” (From the Foreword)
"...a treasure trove of the most secret discussions by leaders of the Soviet Union and the West."
"Evocative, illuminating, insightful: This volume is a brilliant collection of documents, conver-sations, and essays. It is absolutely indispensable for understanding the end of the Cold War.”
"When, where, why did the Cold War end? How did it manage to end peacefully? The answers are in this wonderful collection of crucial historical documents, penetrating essays by experts, plus the record of a revealing symposium including former Soviet and American officials. An invaluable source book on the end of the 20th century.”

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