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A Contested Borderland
Bessarabia―mostly occupied by modern-day republic of Moldova―was the only territory representing an object of rivalry and symbolic competition between the Russian Empire and a fully crystallized nation-state: the Kingdom of Romania. This book is an intellectual prehistory of the Bessarabian problem, focusing on the antagonism of the national and imperial visions of this contested periphery. Through a critical reassessment and revision of the traditional historical narratives, the study argues that Bessarabia was claimed not just by two opposing projects of ‘symbolic inclusion,’ but also by two alternative and theoretically antagonistic models of political legitimacy.
By transcending the national lens of Bessarabian / Moldovan history and viewing it in the broader Eurasian comparative context, the book responds to the growing tendency in recent historiography to focus on the peripheries in order to better understand the functioning of national and imperial states in the modern era.
Bessarabia—A Contested Borderland of the Russian Empire
Conceptual Framework and Historiographical Overview
Chronological and Thematic Structure of the Book
Chapter I. Empire- and Nation-Building in Russia and Romania: Discourses and Practices
The Russian Empire and the Challenge of Multiethnicity: Managing the Periphery
Constructing the National Narrative in Romania: Models and Variations
Russian Imperial Visions and Policies in Bessarabia between the 1860s and World War I
Chapter II. Southern Bessarabia as an Imperial Borderland: Diplomatic and Political Dilemmas
The Russian-Romanian 1878 Controversy: Between Realpolitik and National Dignity
Southern Bessarabia in Russian Imperial Discourse after 1878: Visions of Otherness and Institutional Transfers
Chapter III. Rituals of Nation and Empire in Early Twentieth-Century Bessarabia: The Anniversary of 1912 and its Significance
The 1912 Anniversary and the Early Twentieth-Century Russian Imperial Context
The 1912 Anniversary and Bessarabia’s Public Sphere
Russian-Romanian Symbolic Competition and the “Romanian Response”
Romanian National Discourse on Bessarabia during the 1912 Celebrations
Chapter IV. Three Hypostases of the “Bessarabian Refugee”: Hasdeu, Stere, Moruzi, and the Uncertainty of Identity
Hasdeu—The Romantic Nationalist
Moruzi—The Uprooted Traditionalist
Stere—The Legal Revolutionary
Chapter V. Revolution, War, and the “Bessarabian Question”: Russian and Romanian Perspectives (1905–1916)
Bessarabia as a Contested Borderland during Revolution and War (1905–15)
The Wartime “Nationalization” of the Russian Empire and its Significance
The Controversy over the “Bessarabian Question” in the Romanian Kingdom (1914–16)
Instead of an Epilogue: Autonomy, Federalism, or National Unification (1917–18)?